Skip to main content

Full text of "Chark Talk Made Easy"

See other formats

741 61-011-568 


Chalk talk easy 











4. * 



In writing this book the author had in his mind constantly the 
thought of helpfulness to the beginner. 

A good subject for Easter. You can use only a portion of the 
flowers if you want them. Color the background so as to leave the 
lEy white. Lilies signify purity. 



Crayon and Blackboard Drawing Simplified 

A Complete Course of Self Instruction with 
over 300 Sketches by the Author 

"The Riley Artist" 



Twenty -sixth Printing 

Copyright, 1932 

William Allen Bixler 

Printed in U.S.A. 

v;, s ?.. -V43r^ 

i=^feh<;' **$^ 

,?A' '^W'% ; 
W' % ^ l ;-.-^v- 

H '^T<- ^.^- -, : 

One does not need to be an artist to use the crayon successfully 
Chalk talking is an art in itself, and by a little practice any speake* 
can increase his ability 100 per cent. 


William A, Bixler 5 the artist-author, has produced at his 
easel a crayon sketch of the boy Christ kneeling on the sea- 
shore, his face toward the rising sun, imploring his heavenly 
Father for assistance to prepare himself for his lifework, en- 
mindful of the cross reflected in the shadow on the sand. 

Mr. Bixler, a devout father, has always shown a keen interest 
in children and young people. He has written hundreds of 
articles and nature stones for publication and is also the author 
of books having a large circulation. For years he has demon- 
strated the use of crayon at religious and social gatherings. 

Hie title of "Riley Artist'* was given Mr. Bixler for his 
work in connection with paintings of James Whitcomb Biley's 
"Old Swimmin* Hole*' and the life-size bronze statue of Riley 
erected in Greenfield, Ind., in 1918, It was in 1912 that 
Mr. Bixler produced a painting in oil of the famous spot for 
the poet Riley. Then a committee of Greenfield citizens de- 
termined to erect a bronze statue in honor of Mr. Riley and 
they retained Mr. Bixler to make oil paintings of the "Old 
Swimmin* Hole" for schools throughout the Union that would 
contribute toward the monument fund. During the following 
six years over 5,000 canvases of the noted spot were produced 
for that purpose by Mr. Bixler, the ''Riley Artist/' 

The Anderson (Ind.) Herald, November 26, 1918, said 
of Mr. Bixler: ''Without any question, Mr. Bixler has more 
paintings hanging in the schools of the United States than any 
other living artist" 

The Long Beach (Calif.) Telegram, 1927, says: "The out- 
standing feature of Mr, Bixler's program is his drawing. In a 
few moments he transforms a blank canvas into a charming 
landscape. Mr. Bixler is an artist of national fame, known 
particularly for his painting of the 'Old Swimmin' Hole'." 



Where to Find Necessary Information 11 

Chalk Talk Made Easy An Introduction 13 

Chalk Pictures Appeal to All Ages 17 

How to Make a Drawing Board 20 

Crayons and Color 26 

Hints for Beginners 32 

Learning to Draw 36 

How to Begin 40 

You Can Do It 46 

How to Prepare Your Program 52 

A Record of Ideas and Colors 58 

Colors and Their Meaning 66 

Crayon im the Sunday School 72 

A Scrapbook of Illustrations 86 

What Is Meant by Perspective 92 

How to Print Correctly 98 

Symbols and Their Meaning 104 

Drawing the Human Form 114 

Proper Proportions of the Human Body 118 

Chalk Talk Used in Teaching 122 



Horn of Plenty, and Winter 3 

Easter Lilies 4 

Winter Moonlight 6 

A Bit of Seashore 15 

The Fox Squirrel 16 

Jets, by Wade Smith 19 

Easels and Lighting Equipment 21 

Drawing Board 22 

First Practice Lines 23 

Circles, Ovals, lines Practice Lines 25 

House, Geese, Dog, Chick, Boy 27 

Different Kinds of Trees 29 

Circles, Ovals, Squares Animals 31 

How to Enlarge a Picture 33 

Practice Sketches Essentials Only 35 

Marks That Signify Action and Suggestion 37 

Simple Figures Representing People 39 

Bird and Animal Studies 41 

Wolf, Rabbit, Frog, and Rat Studies 43 

Sheep, Goat, Dog, and Wolf 45 

Birds, Dog, Hen, and Lamb 47 

Butterfly, Bird, and Flowers 49 

Flowers and Leaves 51 

Grapes and Flowers 53 

Studies in Tree Foliage 55 

Tropical Trees 57 

Tree Trunks and Grain Field 59 

Bethlehem, Joppa, and Ancient Jerusalem 61 

Angels 63 



Surprise Sketches and Moon Faces 65 

Trick Letter Sketches 67 

Religious Sketches and Acrostics 69 

Silhouettes Moose, Sheep, Ship, Rain 71 

Post and Tree, Quiet Waters and Waterfall 73 

Expressions with Hands 75 

Hands in Action 77 

Hands in Many Positions 79 

Hands and Fist 81 

Types of Feet and Shoes 83 

Eyes 85 

Noses 87 

Ears 89 

Faces Severity, Grief, Sneer, Fright, Stupidity 91 

Perspective Vanishing Points 93 

Perspective Horizon 95 

Perspective Comparative Objects 97 

Faces Smile, Laugh, Surprise, and Anger 99 

Faces Anger, Fright, Seriousness (Uncle Sam) 101 

Alphabets 103 

Feminine Faces 105 

Symbols Crosses and Circles 107 

Symbols Crosses 109 

Symbols General Ill 

Faces Contempt, Pleased, Smile, Reverie, Sanctimony 113 

Proportions of the Head Front View 114 

Proportions of the Head Side View 115 

Head Studies Front and Profile Views 117 

Egg-Shape Faces 119 

Name Faces, Moon Faces, Lemon, Right and Wrong 

Angle 121 

Children's Faces 123 

Winter Sketches 125 

Turn-Over Stunts 1 27 

Good Night and Closing Numbers 128 


Drawing Board for permanent use in a classroom or home 
details of how to make and how to use, pages 20 and 22. 

Folding Combination Board and Easel different kinds for 
different purposes, illustrated and explained on page 21. 

Crayons what kind to use, what to call for, and where to 
purchase, page 26. 

Colors what kind to use, and where to use them, pages 58 
to 64. 

Paper proper color, sizes, kind, and where to purchase, 
page 26. 

Tools and Equipment other than already mentioned; also 
valuable hints on how to protect clothing and hands, pages 
40 to 46. 

Lighting Equipment, when needed for special work and occa- 
sions, illustrations and sketch s page 21. 

Blendmg Colors to soften tones and blend, also to tint the 

entire picture, pages 26 and 28. 

First Practice Sketches characters representing the human 

form, page 39. 

Simplified Sketches drawing for the beginner, pages 23, 25, 
27, 29, 31, 35, and 37. 

Sketches of the Eye, page 85; Ear, page 89; Nose, page 87; 
and Mouth, page 87. 

Hands in Many Shapes a very necessary part of your chalk- 
talk program. Practice these much. Pages 75, 77, 79, and 81. 



Planning a Program valuable suggestions on how to select 
and what to select from the many sketches in this book, 
pages 52 to 58. 

Suggested Program for different occasions, pages 56 and 58. 

Surprise and Turn-Over Pictures the most interesting of any 
kind of sketches before the public Pages 65 and 127. 

Enlarging a Picture to Any Size how to copy and enlarge 
its principles by a simple process, pages 32 and 33. 

Lettering how to make different styles of lettering correctly, 
and the principles, pages 98 to 103. 

Sunday-School Program what to use in planning a picture 
before your class. Sketches and hints on your program, 
pages 72 to 86. 

Religious Programs for young people's and general church 
services, there is a wealth of material in chapters "Symbols 
and Their Meaning" and "Crayon in the Sunday School." 
There is much material in these chapters for Easter or 
Christmas programs. 

Smiles and Frowns and Different Facial Expressions in chap- 
ter "Drawing the Human Form" and in many sketches 
throughout this book. 

Closing or Good-Night Numbers page 128. 



OLD and young, of every tribe and nation, find In pictures 
a universal language that arrests attention and rivets 
Interest. Through the open eye, which Is said to be the open 
window of the soul, principles of right and spiritual truth enter. 

Chalk talk is nothing more nor less than the quick manipu- 
lation, or execution of crayon sketches, pictures, or diagrams 
which illustrate to the observer the points which the speaker 
wishes to convey. 

While many of those who follow commercial, professional, 
educational, religious, and social chalk talk seek primarily to 
entertain, yet most of them use the same tactics to Impress 
serious and wholesome problems. 

The main secret in chalk talk lies in the fact that the audi- 
ence sees the picture grow by every line, their curiosity is 
aroused and they are constantly held In expectation fall the 
final result. 

Many persons have held back from using the chalk and 
crayon because they have not known that the principles are 
within their very grasp, and principally for that reason the 
author desires to inspire each and every person who is inter- 
ested, to develop this art. 

This book is not purposely intended for any particular 
vocation or class of people ; but there seems to be a great need 
of it among Sunday-school teachers and workers with young 



people, for chalk talk affords many opportunities of impress- 
ing the youth with lessons of truth. The worker among young 
people will find herein a world of undeveloped resources in 
his vocation. 

Any person who desires to develop his ability as a chalk 
talker will find here the cream of principles necessary for such 
development. It simplifies the principles and explains all 
necessary details in such a way that any person, whether he 
has any inclination or qualifications along the line of drawing 
or not, can make use of this undeveloped power in teaching, 
or as an entertaining feature, and can by a little practice start 
chalk talking himself. 

Success will come to him who desires to apply himself to 
this work, just the same as it has come to others, if he will 
go at it with a determination to succeed and a willingness to 
practice and then practice some more. No matter what your 
vocation or present pursuit may be, there is some use to which 
you can put your crayon to advantage. It can be more easily 
adapted to certain callings than to others ; but no matter what 
line of endeavor you follow or how crude your first attempts 
may be, the main item of success is to make a beginning not 
next year, or next month, or next week, but now. The book 
in your hand will not only help you get started, but it may 
be the first foundation stone in a successful chalk talk career. 

The sketches are put in this book for use. If practiced care- 
fully, they will surprise the diligent student with their practical 
value. They have come from observation, public entertainers, 
friends, books, magazines, years of study and experience, and 
from chalk talkers' demonstrations. 

I have drawn nearly all the illustrations myself, to assist the 
student in securing the desired results. The greater part of 
these sketches and ideas are not original with me. I have 
selected many of them from a collection gathered here and 
there over a period of years and have forgotten the true source 
of most of them. 


In my years of practice and study, I have absorbed man; 
ideas and practical working sketches from various sources 
especially from some splendid books on art and chalk talking 
by the following authors: B. J. Gnswold, H. T. Bailey, R. F. Y 
Pierce, Ella N. Wood, Florence H Darnell, Charles H 
Bartholomew, Manuel Rosenberg, Edna A. Foster, E. C 
Matthews, Wade H. Smith, Harlan Tarbell, Chas. Lederer 
and others. 


Anderson, Ind. 





Chalk picture programs are more often given for the benefit 
of the older people, but young folks and children seem to 
enjoy them with even greater interest. 

I have found, while doing public illustrating, that the little 
child will sit almost breathless, his eye following every 
move of the hand. At the same time the older person will 
display no less interest and will sit perfectly still with eyes, 
ears, and mouth open taking in the entire situation. 

The older person may look on the drawing in a critical way, 
whereas the child will take in the entire picture. What the 
drawing lacks, the child's imagination will supply; in fact, the 
child's imagination is one of his greatest assets. This is dem- 
onstrated by the broomstick he uses for a horse and his scores 
of other make-believe ways of amusement. 

In order to see a demonstration of the creative powers of 
the child, watch the little girl as she plays with her doll. That 
the doll has life and is her very own child, and that she as 
the doll's mother bears the same relationship toward it as her 
own mother bears toward her, goes without question; the 
domestic interests of her father's family are lived out in her 
own little creative mind and life. 

The development of a picture stimulates the creative imag- 
ination in the child's mind. As the different marks are made, 
the child is eagerly awaiting every movement to see if the 
picture will develop into what he thought it would be when 



The Impression Is therefore made on the child's mind, as 
well as on the paper or blackboard. If each mark representing 
a character in your story is briefly explained as the picture is 
made, by the time the drawing is complete the impression Is 
indelibly fixed on the mind of the child ; and even if the draw- 
ing be ever so crude, the creative imagination of the child's 
mind is satisfied. It is for this reason that the person who uses 
the chalk need not try to draw perfectly, from an artistic 
standpoint. Direct a child's mind toward the creative, and you 
you have given him that which will be of greater help and a 
larger incentive to work than any other one thing. 

The strongest Impressions on a child's mind are made 
through the eye and the imagination. The chalk talk will not 
only appeal, but will shape the imaginations into realities. 
Since the child's mind is active and restless, the merest sug- 
gestion produces an effect ; and whether this effect is good or 
bad, it rests with the chalk talker. 

It is necessary, then, that our drawings represent in a general 
way what we are trying to picture. Only essentials should be 
drawn, and the lines should be done with a firm, confident 
hand, even though they are mere outlines of crude objects. 

With all the child's imagination he might be able to see 
in a straight line that which represents a man; but a body, 
head, arms, and legs will enable the child more easily to recog- 
nize the object, and he will be better pleased. Also, the child 
can visualize the running or walking position when we draw 
the figure inclined forward and the legs bent at the knee; and 
the features of the face can be made to express the emotions. 
A good-natured or jolly countenance can easily be expressed 
by curving the corners of the mouth up; the man with the 
sour "look, or "down in the mouth/' is shown by having the 
corners of the mouth turned down. 

The essential of a girl or woman is a dress. Each object 
should have the general features so plainly drawn that it will 



Wade Smith's style of illustrating a Sunday-school lesson. Repro- 
duced by permission of Sunday School Times Company. (Copyrighted.) 
See page 39 for other characters. 


not be necessary to place a title underneath telling what it is 
intended to be. 

We should let every line and curve count for something that 
is essential to the picture; but we are more likely to draw too 
much than too little. 


There are a number of ways in which you can make a 
drawing board or easel to hold your drawings. 

For home practice nothing is better than a drawing board 
of convenient size made of matched lumber. It is better to 
have it a little larger than necessary than too small. It should 
be almost exactly the size of the paper used. It should not 
be less than 24x36 inches; even a larger board is better for 
general public work. 

It must be perfectly smooth, and cleats on the back to hold 
it flat should be fastened with screws from the back. Any 
little unevenness or crack will show on your picture, especially 
if the defect comes in a place where a solid mark is to be 

A good drawing board may be made of smooth builders' 
board, or wallboard, as some call it. Any lumber company 
or firm handling building materials can supply this for you. 
Do not get a pebbled or rough surface. The only objection to 
builders' board is that there is a possibility of warping; but 
this can be overcome by giving both sides a coat of paint or 
shellac before the atmospheric elements start the warping 

You can make a portable work easel, such as chalk talkers 
use, out of strong canvas or 10-ounce duck for the background, 
with a device to stretch it perfectly tight each way. A portable 
easel that can easily be carried where wanted and erected in 


Two different kinds of easels. You can see by these diagrams how 
they are constructed. Both of these are the portable kind, and are 
constructed for convenience The sketches below show a special 
lighting attachment. 


a few minutes and placed in the proper position before the 
audience, is what is employed by all the chalk talkers who 
appear in public. Nearly every person following this line of 
public work has an easel made to suit his own individual re- 


A good board for a permanent place. Your crayon will work better 
if you keep several sheets of paper on the board all the time. 

quirements. Diagrams of how these are made are shown on 
the accompanying pages. 

Almost anything that is perfectly smooth will answer the 
purpose, if the paper can be firmly held down by thumb- 
tacks or the kind of clamps used on quilting frames. 



-f^fe^ ^ : ^f 

l ft , M ^^i*^S^^**Wi^.i^^^ r ^-^^^^^^ -..-- ,-^c,,,,^ ... 

These practice sketches look simple and are simple, but they should 
be practiced until you are able to make uniform lines in any direction 
you wish. 


If you hare a blackboard available, use it to practice on, 
and even use it for demonstration purposes. Very good results 
may be obtained on a blackboard with colored crayons or 
chalk. The proper method of application is somewhat different 
than when white paper is used, yet the same results may be 
obtained. Whatever you use, whether blackboard or paper, 
it should be placed as nearly perpendicular as possible when 
you are working on it. 

The advantage in having a board or easel that can be 
folded is the convenience in moving it from place to place. 
If you intend to use it regularly at one place, such as in your 
church, Sunday-school room, classroom, or home, the most 
convenient and economical board is one made of lumber or 
builders' board in such a way that it can be hung on the 
wall at a convenient height for use. Even if your board or 
wall space is a little uneven, the results on this account will 
be partially overcome by placing several sheets of paper on 
the board at a time, even though the top sheet is the only 
one then being used. 

Usually, experienced chalk talkers use a rough-surfaced 
newsprint paper. Sheets are often fastened to the board at the 
top by means of ordinary quilting-frame clamps, and with 
large spring clips at the bottom. To remove sheets, the clip at 
lower left corner is loosened with the left hand, and with the 
right hand the sheet is seized and jerked upward with a free, 
swinging motion that breaks it from the fasteners at the top. 
A good practice to follow is to have ten or twenty sheets of 
paper on the board at a time. If clamps are not available to 
hold the paper in position, drive a few small nails through the 
top of the paper to hold it firmly to the easel. If you wish 
to preserve the drawings for someone in die audience, first 
loosen the clamp whidi holds the sheets at the bottom and 
carefully pull the sheet from the nails that hold it at the top, 
then drop it on the floor behind you. In nearly every case 
there is someone who will want the drawings. 


Practice making circles with a pencil Start at the bottom and move 
to the left; then up and around to the starting point. Follow the 
same movement with the chalk, and draw ovals the same way as 
circles. In making large hearts, shields, and objects where both sides 
are uniform, use a piece of chalk in each hand and move both hands 
at the same time. This is good practice. It is well to practice straight 
lines a great deal. 



For many years the blackboard was largely used by speakers, 
and is thus employed to a large extent today; but the crayon 
and paper have proved to be better, and are now almost 
universally employed by people who have anything to do along 
the line of chalk talking. The white paper makes a good back- 
ground for any color of crayon, and the audience is served 
better than they could possibly be by the blackboard. 

In using paper for illustrating, one has no waste of time 
in erasing, for the used sheet of paper can be loosened and 
passed back over the top, where it is out of the way. 

It is also an advantage to the artist when he wishes to 
produce a picture that will show upside down as well as right 
side up ; the sheets of paper may be taken off the board and 
held in any position desired. Since the light background yields 
to different types and classes of illustration, paper has many 
decided advantages over the blackboard. 

Ordinary newsprint paper, such as all printing offices carry, 
and on which their newspapers are printed, is the best and 
most economical The she depends on your individual needs. 
Certain grades of book paper will do equally well, but the 
paper must have a mat or eggshell finish, for glossy book 
papers are useless. Ordinary newspaper stock is the best 
for practice work. 

Lecturers' crayons are of different sizes, but the most prac- 
tical size is one inch square by three inches long. These are 
made in nearly all the colors and can be secured in most 
stationery stores. They are nothing more than colored chalk, 
but the size of each piece permits it to be used in many ways 
to get different results. The corners may be used to make 
narrow lines, and with the flat surface the colors will yield 
to shading and tinting purposes. 

An effective way of blending colors for backgrounds or 
other surfaces desiring shade is to use a chamois skin or a 


These are good sketches to practice on, either with pencil, pen, or 
chalk. Draw essential lines only the fewer the better to convey the 
idea. Make the houses first, then the other sketches, You will convince 
yourself that it is not half so hard as you thought it was. Draw each 
picture several times. It will help you to draw the next one better. 


bunch of good cotton. After the chalk has been applied to 
the chamois or cotton it can easily be rubbed on the paper. 
There is no end to the possibilities of blending colors in this 
manner. A very light tint of any color may be obtained by 
applying a small amount of chalk and rubbing it well into 
the paper. A circular motion should be used in order to insure 
a uniform shade. 

Yellow, red, and blue are called the primary colors. With 
the addition of white and black, every color and shade may 
be made from these by properly mixing. The primary colors 
or shades must be true to nature; they are then called ortho- 
chromatic, because the mixture will yield perfect tones. 

Orange, violet, and green are the secondary colors, for blue 
mixed with yellow makes green; red and blue make violet; 
red and yellow make orange. Brown, gray, tan, and the count- 
less other shades are a mixture of different colors. 

Red and yellow are called warm colors; also orange, which 
is the result of mixing these two colors. Red is the warmest 
color. Green and violet are cold colors, but blue is the coldest. 

If a picture is to have distance, it is well to bear in mind 
that the warm colors suggest nearness, or the foreground, and 
the cold shades give distance. 

Where sunlight is indicated, the coloring must be warm; 
although there may be green foliage, it may have the yellow 
shades predominating, and in shadow the colder colors should 
be more pronounced. The seasons of the year have their 
predominating colors which give them their peculiar settings. 

The colors of spring are light blue sky, pale, yellow-green 
foliage, and the colors of twigs, limbs, and trunks of trees 
show red, purple, and brown. 

In summer the sky is not such a deep blue, yellows are more 
prominent, the foliage greens are deeper, and more dark blues 
are used to deepen the shadows. Prussian blue is the base of 


See the different kinds of trees and how they are made. Each repre- 
sents a different type of tree. Try to make your copy as near like 
the picture in the book as you can. If you do not get it quite^ right, 
try it again. When you get so that you can make these well with the 
pencil, you will have no difficulty with your chalk or crayoo. 


greens, and ultramarine blue is the base of grays. This must 
be borne in mind when mixing to get some particular shade. 

In autumn the sky is a hazy blue with tinges of yellow and 
purple. Greens in foliage are inclined toward olive. The 
browns and ocher predominate, and the frost turns the foliage 
to gold, orange, yellow, and red; but the bright colors in 
nature are short-lived and change rapidly. 

In winter the sky is light gray, with deeper grays in 
distances. Browns and blacks are in evidence, and the snow 
gives blue and purplish shadows. For hazy days, gray must 
be used to soften the colors of the whole picture; for rainy 
days, a bluish tint must be in evidence. 

In using colored chalk in your drawings, the effect is some- 
times disappointing when viewed under artificial light. Yellows 
tend to disappear or show as white. Orange is often substituted 
for yellow at an evening performance when white paper is 

A good way to test colors under artificial light is to view 
your drawing from the rear of the building and see what 
happens to your colored drawings on the stage or platform. 
Colors viewed in daylight often appear quite different under 
other kinds of illumination. 

For the best effect, the chalk talker should strive for strong 
contrasts and bright colors. Strong high lights and shadows 
are what please the average audience. For instance, a moon- 
light scene, in which the shadows are broad strokes of black, 
will make a pleasing impression on the audience when the 
artist finishes his picture with yellow high lights of ripples on 
the water and lights shining from windows. 

When subdued outlines are desired, a good-sized wad of 
cotton will help to blend the colors. 


Sketches after Oobb Shinn 

Now, with your pencil in hand, you can make a cat from a double 
circle perhaps not as good as the picture above at first, but if you 
try a few times you can. Then from the oval make the pig and 
bunny. The triangle, square, and oval look more diffcult, but try 
them and see how easy they are. 



It Is always Interesting to watch different individuals in an 
audience when a chalk drawing is being made. The thing 
that interests them is that they do not know what is going to 
be made, and it is a good plan to foster that curiosity. The 
chalk talker should stand aside occasionally as if to scrutinize 
the picture, but with the main object of giving the audience 
a good look. 

Any drawing should be practiced several times with pencil 
and paper or with the crayon before it is offered to the public. 
Until you get used to appearing before the public, or if you are 
not sure of being able to produce the picture in a satisfactory 
manner, carefully trace the picture with a pencil beforehand. 
Light pencil lines may be seen by yourself but not by your 
audience. The heavy lines of your crayon may be placed 
directly over the pencil marks, and you will be able to make 
better speed, as well as draw the picture more perfectly. The 
crayon drawing should always be made with plain, distinct 
strokes, and only lines that mean something should be made. 

Remember, one is not required to be an artist in order to 
use the material in this book effectively and profitably. The 
amateur has been kept in mind constantly. The name of the 
book itself is intended to convey the idea that anyone with 
ordinary intelligence can apply these methods with profit and 

The best way to begin is to try to imitate some picture 
in this book or some face or object pictured elsewhere. Try to 
duplicate every line as nearly as possible, for there is a reason 
why every mark is placed where it is. If you wish to enlarge 
a picture, first with a rule and pencil draw light lines each way 
across it, covering the entire picture with small squares of 
equal size say one-fourth inch. Then if you want to increase 
your drawing three times in height or width, or nine times 
the size of the original, rule your paper in the same manner 


as your picture, only with squares three-fourths inch instead 
on one-fourth. (See diagram below.) 

By carefully noting the position of each square you can 
reproduce the copy in the larger form with considerable degree 

You can enlarge any picture to any size by the method pictured 
above. It is by this method that the large billboards are painted. 
Read the text for the full informaion page 32. 


of accuracy. Practice copying pictures, diagrams, and letters 
of the alphabet until you become familiar with making your 
lines where you want them. Then try copying offhand without 
guide lines. Make good enlarged copies of the pictures and 
sketches in this book as you go along. 

When you have practiced surTiciently so you can draw your 
objects, then you should put into your drawings some of your 
own ideas and be original. 

Still use the ideas pictured in this book and apply and adapt 
them to your own work. You will soon find by applying 
thoughts that come to you while working that you have some- 
thing just as original and practical as the figures and illustra- 
tions in this book. Apply ideas and illustrations from almost 
every known source, taking them from a thought here and a 
suggestion there, and in the finished product they will become 
your own. 

Much depends on constant practice if you would succeed 
in chalk talk as a teacher, Sunday-school worker, young people's 
leader, or an entertainer; yet by practicing the lessons and 
drawing over and over the characters in this book, or the 
pictures you adapt from various sources, you will become so 
apt that you can adapt any new thought in your own easy 

I have heard people say, "I just cannot draw; why, I couldn't 
draw a straight line." It is not necessary to draw a straight 
line when you begin, but it is necessary to have an earnest 
desire to succeed, or you will not progress very far in any 
line of endeavor. 

When a person decides, "I am going to succeed" in this or 
that, and persistently continues to apply himself, the battle is 
the same as won the rest is easy. 



Watch carefully how the lines are made on these pictures, and draw 
your pencil sketches as near like the copy as you can. Practice makes 
perfect. The second attempt will be easier and the results better than 
the first 



The only way to learn how to draw is by drawing, and 
then by drawing some more. Begin by deciding what you want 
to make; then try to make your marks with a whole-arm 
movement in full, free lines, avoiding the making of sketchy 
lines or strokes with no purpose in view. 

Practice making your strokes firmly; hold the crayon be- 
tween the thumb and first two fingers, so that you can control 
your every move. 

With everything in readiness, your paper held firmly in 
place and your crayon ready, begin your practice of horizontal 
lines. Stand nearly at arm's length from your paper or black- 
board. Start making a horizontal chalk line at a point opposite 
the left shoulder; throw the weight of the body on the left 
foot; and, placing the piece of chalk on the board, keeping 
the wrist and arm fairly rigid, draw your chalk toward the 
right by swaying the body until the weight rests on the right 
foot. Practice this movement repeatedly, until you can make 
straight lines to suit you. 

To draw vertical lines, start at a point opposite the right 
shoulder and about as high as the top of your head; use the 
whole-arm movement, bearing down firmly, and come down- 
ward with uniform speed to the end of die stroke. 

Practice these lines again and again; you will soon see that 
the technique of making straight lines consists almost wholly 
in getting control of your muscles and nerves. Practice alone 
will enable you to succeed. 

You should also practice drawing circles. Face the black- 
board, stand close enough to that you can easily reach the 
surface with the chalk at arm's length up, down, and side- 
ways. You should stand firmly and with the shoulder in a 
fixed position ; swing the stiff arm around and keep the crayon 
on the surface of the paper or board. Practice this movement 
until you can make a fairly accurate circle. In making a small 



Effect o/ 

1. The slanting marks suggest rain when the umbrella is seen. 2. So 
the simple marks suggest water with the sailboat 3 and 4. Inaction 
and action. 6 and 7. Different effects caused by sources of light 


circle, start at the bottom and move the chalk to the left, 
then up and around to starting point. You should practice 
circles and straight lines until you can make them confidently, 
accurately, and quickly. Daily practice of five minutes will 
bring marvelous results. 

A drawing, even though it be somewhat inaccurate, will 
hold the attention of the audience or class and be more satis- 
factory if it is made freely, rapidly, and accurately, than if made 
in a doubtful movement. 

It is not the intention of this book to go into the prin- 
ciples of drawing, such as the horizon line, ground line, point 
of sight, vision line, perspective, vanishing point, observation 
point, and shading. However, a general knowledge of all these 
must be obtained before one can enter into the making of 
pictures that may truly be classed as works of art. 

In another chapter the principles of perspective are given 
briefly. Each picture, even the crudest sketch, must in- 
corporate some of these principles, to look at all right. When 
the elementary steps of design and drawing in this book have 
been mastered, the worker who is interested will take up the 
subject further in order to master these principles. 

A few marks with a pencil or crayon, put in the right place, 
immediately give the appearance of distance ; but it is necessary 
to know how to make the right marks and lines to accom- 
plish this. By carefully noticing the various sketches in this 
book you will readily understand what this means. Observe 
the sketches and drawings in almost any publication and see 
how simply the lines make the picture. 

Whenever you see simple sketches, try to copy them, making 
the marks as nearly as possible like the original. By close 
observation you can see why the marks have been given the 
positions they occupy, and you will almost unconsciously 
acquire much definite knowledge of drawing and design. 

Here are a few points that will help you in planning your 
pictures : 



These figures are used as the simplest way of representing human 
figures. A great deal of expression may be had from such figures. 
These are very easy to make. Take your pencil, pen, or chalk and 
try these figures starting at the top row- Try every one all the way 
down. See page 19 also. 


A panel picture, whether upright or horizontal, is generally 
more pleasing than a square one. 

There is a center of interest in every well-composed picture, 
whether it be of a human figure, a group of animals, a cabin, 
boat, windmill, mountain peak, waterfall, road or tree; and 
this center of interest should never be in the exact center 
of the picture. Some artists prefer it above the center and to 
one side preferably the upper left, as the theory is advanced 
that the eye first falls there from the habit of looking there 
when beginning to read a page. 

This center of interest need not be the largest object in the 
picture, but its color or the leading lines should draw attention 
to it. Often a boat is the center of interest in a water picture, 
or some clouds in the sky may help to make a perfect balance. 

A figure in action always attracts attention; even a few 
flying birds in the sky add interest, but these should not be 
placed mechanically that is, not two or three in a straight line. 
Three birds are better than two, or any odd number better 
than an even. 


At this point in your own individual life you may never 
have tried to do much with crayon or chalk. You may be at 
a loss just how to get started and where to begin. The simple 
fact that you are reading Chalk Talk Made Easy proves your 
interest in the subject; and where there is interest, there may 
be developed an ability to succeed in this work. It is now 
up to you to obtain your training by following a plan you may 
map out for yourself, to fit your own individual case and cir- 
cumstances in life. 

"But just where shall I begin?" you ask. In the first place, 
the great essential is the proper equipment. It may be ever so 
meager and limited in the various articles eventually needed, 
but what you get should be of the best. Poor materials and 




Good practice bird and animal studies. It is well to be able to 
draw these studies, as they will come in handy someday. The circles 
are always interesting. 


equipment will have a tendency to handicap you in the begin- 
ning, and this alone may discourage you. A determination to 
succeed, even against all obstacles, will surmount a lack of 
proper necessities. 

A drawing board or easel must be provided according to one 
of the plans given in the chapter on "How to Make a Drawing 
Board." Then get a good assortment of lecturer's crayons 
size 1x3 inches, a yardstick, and a soft cloth. The cloth is very 
useful in wiping the hands when soiled with the crayon. Many 
chalk talkers have a thin slip-on coat or a painter's smock, for 
the protection of their clothing while using the chalk. 

Gloves tend to destroy a person's sense of touch, so are used 
by very few artists. When working with the bare chalk, it 
is wise to prepare by putting talcum powder on the hands 
in advance. This aids In removal of chalk from the hands 
with soap afterwards. Some artists use cold cream on their 
hands before starting, and then use more cold cream in remov- 
ing chalk from the hands. A final cleanup is made with soap 
and water. 

Always put a sheet of paper on the floor if you are working 
in a home or where there is a carpet or rugs, for chalk dust is 
hard to remove from carpets. 

It has been said that any person should be able to do good 
work with good tools and equipment, but it takes an artist 
to do good work with poor tools. 

Get a good supply of paper from a newspaper shop, so that 
you can fill hundreds of sheets with just practice marks of 
jets, daffodils, moon faces, smiles, frowns, noses, eyes, ears, 
hands, feet, dogs, cats, trees, houses, and everything else 
illustrated In this book. That is why the pictures were put in 
this book for your practice. There are none that are too 
difficult. By trying the easiest and simplest first and then 
going step by step, the drawings and stunts are easy and can 
be mastered if you but try. There is not an object pictured 




Some good animal poses. It is well to know how to draw all of 
these. It will help you in drawing more difficult objects. 


here but can be used at some time to advantage. So practice 
all of them. 

If in years to come you have mastered the principles in 
this book and are numbered among America's chalk artists, 
and you can look back upon this book as the starting point or 
as a steppingstone to success, this little volume will have 
accomplished its mission and I shall be repaid for its prepara- 

"What can I get out of this book on chalk talk and black- 
board drawing?" should be the big question in your mind. 
The answer will depend altogether on how you apply the book 
to yourself and yourself to the book. You can get a great 
deal of satisfaction and pleasure to yourself, and you can 
start out in public demonstration after a little practice, by 
using some of the suggestions and adapting new applications 
until you have selected your own individual program. 

This book will help you find yourself. You will soon decide 
for yourself which pictures are practical by the way they appeal 
to the public. In personal presentation you will develop some 
individual characteristics that will be your very own. Everyone 
does this. 

In the chapter, "How to Prepare Your Program/' are many 
suggestions, and you will soon be able to adapt many pictures 
and subjects to your various needs. Make use of the enlarging 
process in chapter on "Hints for Beginners," and the tracing 
of the drawings explained in the same chapter on all your 
sketches which at first may seem difficult. 

If you want a religious or temperance program, you will 
find it here. Several programs may be built around the chapter, 
"Symbols and Their Meaning," and also "Crayon in the 
Sunday School." Some of the simple surprise and turnover 
stunts are always in place. They may be used in almost any 
program and adapted to suit the occasion. (See page 127.) 

Chalk talk is and always will be something that holds the 
interest of almost any kind of audience. The interest lies 


More animal studies not a hard subject in the lot. 


in the fact that the spectator is kept in anticipation of what 
the next move will bring. 

Your first attempts at chalk talk may be crude, but by using 
a number of the stunts in this book you will find it interesting ; 
and experience will develop your capabilities. 

What you need is the experience of making some of the 
simplest drawings before such friendly audiences as await 
you in your own community. You should get your prepar- 
atory experience before church, school, and social organiza- 
tions made up of people you know the best and who are 
interested in you. This is the only way to learn. You will 
expand naturally. Your field is as large as you make it. The 
first and most important step is to make a beginning now. 

Before you close this book make up your mind to start at 
once. Get your materials as soon as possible and begin not 
next week, but at once at least plan now and prepare at the 
earliest possible moment. The book in your hand is full of 
gold nuggets and is worth a great deal to you. Whether you 
are a blacksmith, farmer, factory worker, clerk, stenographer, 
day laborer, teacher, preacher man or woman boy or girl 
in whatever pursuit, Chalk Talk Made Easy is an open door of 
opportunity for your future. 


To be able to do freehand drawing on a blackboard or 
with crayons on paper should interest every teacher or speaker 
in public, whether his message is religious, educational, or 
social. The ability to use chalk talk in making a point clear, 
or to impress a lesson on the audience, is invaluable. One 
speaker said: "A piece of chalk is worth more than a lot of 

Many teachers and speakers would like to use illustrations 
in connection with their messages, but they do not know where 

You CAN Do IT 


Bird studies may be used in many ways. Many different kinds ol 
birds are mentioned in the Bible. Adapt some of these sketches to 
Bible lessons. 


to begin the whole thing seems a great big something that 
only "natural-born artists" should tackle; but if the truth were 
known, "natural-born artists" are few and far between. The 
ability of a practical chalk talker comes only by having an 
intense desire to do it, a willingness to start, a determination 
to accomplish it, and a doggedness to overcome obstacles. In 
fact, it takes that much to succeed in any line of endeavor. But 
if a person once starts to draw, he will find every step an easy 
one and full of interest. 

In this book there are many simple sketches intended to 
aid by giving suggestions and by furnishing the necessary prin- 
ciples that will enable any person with ordinary ability to 
draw for pleasure or profit. 

Many persons have neither the time nor inclination to take 
up a complete course in drawing, as most courses cover so 
many phases of the subject that the information and knowledge 
wanted would not justify such a great expenditure of time 
and money. 

This book is not a complete treatise on the subject of draw- 
ing or art; but if any person will take the time to study and 
put in practice the information herein given, he can make 
a success insofar as he applies his natural ability and adapta- 

The important step is to begin now. All who will apply 
themselves will find a pathway lined with interest, pleasure, 
and real usefulness. 

The writer has especially seen the need of chalk and crayon 
in connection with Sunday-school and young people's work, 
since there are so many ways of applying diagrams, illustra- 
tions, and the like to every lesson. There is nothing like a 
crayon drawing to impress a point in the lesson to the class. 

In connection with Sunday-school work, with a little practice 
the average teacher can develop and make use of chalk draw- 
ings with results decidedly beneficial, both to the teacher and 

You CAN Do IT 

By using different colors of chalk you can make pictures of flowers 
in colors, which are greatly needed to add variety to your chalk talk. 
In Christ's parables he often mentioned flowers of the field. 


the class. Too much stress should not be put on the chalk 
drawings, as they may be employed so freely that they become 
formal , die chalk should be used only for a direct and distinct 
result. The truths and points of the lesson should be brought 
out in such a way that the drawing clinches the point and 
brings home the message. 

If a drawing should be made so very, very dever and artistic 
that the audience would be impressed mainly by its beauty, 
very little lasting benefit would result it would merely have 
furnished entertainment. But if the drawing impresses the 
truth upon the minds of the hearers, the chalk-talk drawing 
will have accomplished its purpose. 

To learn the use of the crayon will take more work and 
persistence for some than for others; but the better acquainted 
one is with the rudiments of drawing, and the more practice 
one has, the more confidence he will have and the better will 
be the results. 

When interest takes hold of any person, practice will re- 
sult. When practice brings one to the place where he knows 
he can do it, that knowledge gives confidence ; and confidence 
is of prime importance to anyone appearing before the public. 

If you have a desire to do chalk work (and you no doubt 
have, or you would not be reading this book) , you can do it 
if your desire is strong enough. 

The student's final success depends on practice, ability, and 
interest; but the greatest of these is interest. 

Too great haste to reap the fruit of success, even before the 
seed of practice has been sown and the plant cultivated, will 
be fatal to advancement in this line of endeavor, as in any 
other business of life. 

You CAN Do IT 

By using your colored chalk your pictures of flowers need not lack 
variety. Use a darker shade of the same color where shadows are 
needed, on both leaves and flowers. 



If you wish to produce quite a difficult picture before your 
audience, take your time to sketch it carefully with a lead pencil 
in light lines at home. Follow the instructions given in 
chapter, "Hints for Beginners/' on enlarging by the use of 
squares. When pencil drawings are completed, arrange the 
sheets on your easel in the rotation and order in which you 
intend to use them, but place a clean sheet of paper on top 
so that no one in your audience will detect the pencil sketches. 
When you get ready to produce your picture while you are 
giving your preliminary remarks, casually turn this sheet over 
the top of your easel, or pull it off. This can easily be done, 
as the clamps or nails which hold your sheets to the board 
should be used across the top only. 

The pencil lines will act as a guide to you. Take your time 
and carefully draw each line or mark with your crayon without 
anyone in your audience being the wiser, for these faint lines 
will not be visible to them. 

This plan is a good one for a beginner to follow while 
learning, for it gives confidence and will be a great help in 
putting on the first few programs. Make your crayon lines 
firm and quite heavy. Even with black crayon the marks will 
not be too heavy for the most distant eyes in your audience. 
Keep a steady nerve. Draw your lines slowly and well, but 
with decision, pausing now and then to make some remark; 
and while doing so, step aside so that the audience can see 
what you are doing. The sketching process may be used 
advantageously in any program. It will enable you to demon- 
strate much more speed before your audience, since no great 
amount of time will be required for thinking out details. 

The patience of an audience should never be taxed on 
account of long, drawn-out pictures. Simple lines each having 
a place and meaning are what will make you successful in 
chalk talk. 


Practice making these flowers. They are easy to make and often 
such pictures are needed. Their practice is beneficial. 


Preparedness Is another great essential if you would become 
a successful chalk talker. You should practice on each draw- 
ing until you become so familiar with its formation that you 
can eventually be looking In another direction and drawing 
at the same time. Don't think you can become a successful 
chalk talker in a few hours, or a day it requires practice, the 
same as any other line of art. 

Possibly you have more talent to chalk than to talk, or vice 
versa. The artist who is qualified to do both well is the fellow 
who is usually most successful; however, many artists never 
speak a word. It is left entirely to the individual to overcome 
his shortcomings, and he can qualify as a first-class chalk 
talker if he is sincere and earnest in his endeavor. The writer 
has In mind a clever chalk talker who talks incessantly so 
much so that the audience tires of it. They want to see what 
he Is doing more than they want to hear what he has to say, 
especially when the talk is just "talk." 

It is necessary that you put earnest study and practice into 
your work. It would be foolish to attempt complete chalk- 
talk programs or platform work unless you feel capable of 
making good. This confidence comes by careful preparation. 

Do not be hasty in attempting a public performance; wait 
until you possess self-confidence and feel assured of a suc- 
cessful undertaking. Practice your program in the presence 
of your home folks or friends this will give you confidence 
then appear before clubs or social gatherings or your class. 
You may or may not have experienced being before an audi- 
ence. If you have, you will find it a great advantage In your 
chalk-talk work; but if you have not there is no need of 
having stage fright, if you keep your nerve and think of 
what you are doing and saying. Just "be yourself"; or, In 
other words, show some individuality and originality. By so 
doing, you will make a better Impression on the audience and 
consequently help to make your performance a success. Do 
not try to see how fast you can talk and chalk. Speed will 
develop with practice. Make it a point to speak fluently. Give 


Studies in 

Studies in foliage. Note carefully how the high lights and shadows 
are made. The high lights are the white paper. Too many marks spoil 
the simplicity of the picture. 


the audience time to comprehend what you say and do. Take 
your time, so you will not lose self-control or get confused. 
Crudeness of execution will be forgiven by the audience 
if there is a definite plan, or point, or plot back of your pic- 
ture. Snap and brevity are necessary in chalk-talk work. After 
successful attempts have been made, work calling for more 
skill should be tried. An audience will soon tire of mere 
drawing; but a wise chalk talker will produce some short, 
snappy, pointed sketches. 

A trick, or surprise sketch, should be resorted to occasion- 
ally, A carefully made marine, landscape, portrait, or cartoon 
should not be put on during the first part of the program, but 
saved for near the end. Even then this should not be attempted 
until you have had practice sufficient to insure confidence in 
your execution; and part of this practice should be with the 
idea of concealing the final result, at least until the last few 
seconds before its completion. 

If you can keep your audience guessing what the final 
result is going to be, their interest will become more intense. 
Likewise, if the nature of your sketch remains unknown until 
you reveal it to the audience as a crowning climax, they will 
be all the more highly pleased. Practice is of the greatest 
importance in success; so practice, practice, practice. 

A "good-night stunt" is good to use in winding up your 
program. The safest way, as a rule, is to close with a note of 
good cheer. 

In making your start in chalk talking, you will find an 
abundance of material in this book, both in suggestions and 
drawings, to start you out. Practice the sketches which appeal 
most to you. Make them over and over, until you can make 
them while only half thinking what you are doing; then start 
out The best work possible should be thrown into the close 
of your program. 

The successful chalk talker is always on the alert for new 
ideas. He trains himself to grasp ideas from daily happenings, 



In tropical sketches use tropical trees. The lower picture is easily 
made and yields to a moonlight subject well. In case this is desired 
cover entire surface first with blue-gray chalk, blend with cotton* 
then use light yellow for moon and reflections on water and black 
for trees and landscape. 


newspaper stories and cartoons, and the national holidays. 
He searches publications for new ideas, verses, etc. It is well 
to keep your programs seasonable. If you are scheduled to 
give a chalk talk on Labor Day, Lincoln's birthday, New 
Year's, or Christmas, work in drawings that are timely. 
When you happen into a town, try to learn what has been 
going on. Make the audience feel that you are interested in 
their town, and try to produce something that will interest 

After you have practiced your programs until you can han- 
dle them with accuracy and freedom, break in by giving a 
performance at some local club, school entertainment, public 
meeting, young people's meeting, Sunday school, or luncheon. 
After a few performances you will naturally acquire the knack 
of entertaining. 

Do not expect any great financial returns at first. When your 
work has earned you a reputation you will be in a position to 
set your own price for your services. Experience, even at a 
considerable cost of time and money, is more valuable to you 
than to receive pay for your services. However, do not refuse 
if someone wants to help you out in a financial way. One way 
of doing after you get started is to plan an entertainment and 
invite everybody; then let the audience contribute whatever 
they feel like giving. 

You can make a success of this art if you will go into it with 
the determination to succeed. Just keep everlastingly at it, 
and eventually you will be rewarded for keeping up your 


An item of great value to anyone who works along the 
lines of chalk talking or public illustrating is a small 
notebook in which rough sketches may be made of all 
posters or pictures one sees along the way or finds in 



Note the simple lines for tree foliage and tree trunks. Get this 
point. The white paper forms the high lights in both upper and 
lower pictures. 


books, magazines, or papers. Many splendid suggestions 
for illustrations may be found in places here and there, even 
when a person is not looking for ideas. 

To make a success of any venture one must apply himself 
to the task; the more he is interested in his work, the 
greater the success he will have in it. Thought produces 
thought; many an idea will present itself and, if not jotted 
down, may slip away from the mind forever. 

The author has gathered thoughts and ideas while riding 
along the road or in street cars, while sitting in church or at 
a public gathering, on a walk in the country, or while lying 
in bed at night. 

In making notes it is well to jot down any original idea 
or suggestion which presents itself at that time, or while the 
mind is dwelling on the incident. 

Some of the modern advertising on billboards contains the 
very finest of bulletin art; also, the color schemes are well 
worthy of notice. 

In making your sketches, a notation of colors used i* 
helpful if you desire to use colored crayons in your design 
or are planning a poster for a special occasion. 

You cannot use just any colors and put two of them 
side by side and produce a harmonious picture effect. The 
artist knows the harmony of color and uses the proper com- 
binations to produce a pleasing effect. It is well to take 
note of pleasant color combinations and study them. 

By observing the colors in nature you will find harmony. 
Most of Nature's colors are pleasing in their soft, mellow 
tones. The most brilliant sunsets are short-lived. The sun's 
rays which are responsible for the brilliant shades of yellow, 
orange, and red also cast a harmonious shade over the land- 
scape till all is aglow with the beautiful harmony. Even 
shadows in the water harmonize; the sea, deep-blue under 
the rays of the noonday sun, loses its deep blues and greens, 
to a certain extent, while the sunset glow continues. 



A night effect on the upper picture is secured either by having a 
gray paper or by first coating your paper with gray chalk, then making 
outlines in black. Use light yellow for star, rays of light, and reflec- 
tions on houses and lights from windows. The simple lines tve 



The bright colors of springtime and summer the deep- 
blue sky, the brilliant green grass and foliage, and the 
blossoms and flowers present an entirely different color 
harmony from that of the haze of autumn days, when the 
frosts have turned the leaves to amber and gold, and the 
foliage and grass have taken on a more somber shade. 

But the bright autumn colors compare with the brilliant 
sunset, in that they are short-lived and changes rapidly 
take place. 

The winter landscape presents an altogether different 
value In color schemes. Even the deep greens of the evergreen 
harmonize with the drab tree trunks and seemingly dead 
foliage and branches, and the snow adds a finish to the picture. 

This is an age of color, and more brilliant tints and shades 
are used than formerly. This is exemplified in almost every 
phase of business and life. It is therefore quite in keeping with 
modern times to use brighter colors in chalk work; but by 
the proper application and correct combinations of colors bet- 
ter and more pleasing effects are obtained. 

Some very pleasing color combinations are as follows: 
Brown, orange, black. 
Orange, gray, black. 
Gray, red, black, yellow. 
Greea, purple, blue, yellow, black. 
Orange, blue, dull green, brown, white. 
Bright yellow, deep blue, dark gray blue, black. 
Tan, purple, blue, dark brown, black. 
Light blue, deep blue, white, black, orange, tan. 
Dull lemon yellow, orange, blue, deep blue, black. 
Deep green, bright green, brown, lavender, cream. 
Dark blue, deep blue, white, black, orange, tan. 
Lavender, deep green, light green, bright yellow, white, 
There is no fixed rule to govern the coloring of your 



Here are several good sketches for practice. All these are good 
subjects and should be drawn several times. It is a good idea to draw 
these sketches with pencil first and then with crayon. 


drawings. You may use a combination of colors which will 
help to emphasize your sketch. 

When lettering is used with a drawing, it is well to use 
certain colors for certain words. See chapter on "Colors and 
Their Meaning," in this book. A few suggestions are here 

Trust and love: Pink, blended down to lighter shade. 

Truth: Blue, blended down to lighter shade. 

Joy: Gold or orange, blended down to lighter shade. 

Purity: Should be white. This may be obtained by making 
letters in outline and using some color on the ground outside 
and surrounding the strokes of the letters. 

Danger: Red. 

Hatred, betrayal, sin, wickedness: Yellow, green, brown, 
red, and black. 

If time will permit, an elaborate drawing may be produced 
with ordinary assorted colored school crayons or chalk. These 
crayons may be purchased at any stationer's or school supply 


Carefully draw the first picture and compare the figures with trouble 
and trials of life. If we look at failure that is all we can see. Every- 
thing looks dark and gloomy, but remember every shadow has a light 
behind it; so when we feel discouraged we should look up toward the 
light. Then complete the face on the side toward the light, block out 
the first face, and finish the picture. 

A good stunt against the use of cigarettes. Begin with C, then 
follow with the I and G, being careful to place them in their proper, 
respective places so as to make the skull face; then follow with the 
rest of the word and end with the cigarette, and make the smoke 
by encircling the contour of the top of the head and ending at the 
base of the fag. 

Expressions of the face are but the manipulations of marks. Note 
how simple lines change the expression. This is the simplest form 
of facial expression. It looks easy, and it is easy to make. Take your 
pencil and a piece of paper and try it. First make the circle, then the 
eyes, nose, and mouth; then the marks on the cheeks see how this 
changes the expression. 




See explanation at bottom of page 64. 



Colored crayons may be used to a decided advantage in 
chalk-talk work, since each of the different colors has a definite 
meaning, established by constant use throughout the centuries. 
It is well that we understand something about color and its 
meaning before attempting to make color drawings. 

There are a number of passages in the Bible referring to 
color; also, the pages of history contain many references to 
colors and their meaning. The old masters demonstrated their 
knowledge of color in their work which we prize today as 
art treasures. 

Day and night have played quite an important part in many 
of the religions of the past. They are represented by black 
and white and are identified with good and evil. 

White has always represented purity, and in many countries 
of today white signifies divine perfection. The Jewish high 
priests in Moses* time wore white robes. In many of the 
religious festivities in which girls or virgins play an important 
part, white is always worn. Christ's raiment at the time of his 
transfiguration is described as "white as the light"; also, 
when he appeared to John on the Isle of Patmos, even his 
face and hair were "white like wool." John also described 
the great multitudes in heaven as being clothed in white, and 
the bride of Christ, representing the church, was dressed in 

Artists of medieval times always painted God in white, as 
well as the Virgin Mary at the annunciation and Jesus at the 
resurrection. These same artists sometimes portrayed Christ as 
wearing a black robe during the period of his temptation. 
Joel says, "All faces shall gather blackness" meaning terror, 
or fright. The third horse which John saw in his vision was 
black, and it is said to represent famine. 

In some of the foreign countries, brown is the color of 
mourning. It is the color of the barren earth, of dead trees, 




In each of the above the letter or the figure is made first, being 
carefully placed in the correct position, and then the rest of the picture 
1$ drawn. This is good practice and always interesting. 


and withered leaves ; and since it is a mixture of orange, white, 
and black, it has been closely associated with black as a symbol 
of suffering and sorrow. It was the one color worn by the 
Quakers as a protest against worldliness and show. Browo 
and gray form the principal garb worn in monasteries as a 
sign of humility and penitence. 

The blue sky has always stood for truth. In the Old Tes- 
tament a number of references are made to the word "sap- 
phire" (blue) in connection with God himself, and blue has 
always been associated with trueness. We say a person is 
"true blue." It is said that the flower called the forget-me-not 
was thus named because of its color, as a symbol of constancy. 
Painters in olden times gave Christ and the Virgin Mary 
blue garments. 

Blue is also called a cold color. For instance, people with 
a gloomy disposition have the "blues." 

As the earth is clothed in its splendid garb of green leaves 
and grass, green has been accepted as symbolizing fertility, 
fruitfulness, and prosperity. David declares of the righteous: 
"He shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water ... his 
leaf also shall not wither; and whatsoever he doeth shall 

The martyrs were often painted with green palms in their 
hands, representing victory over death. Spring celebrates her 
victory over winter by appearing in a garment of green foliage, 
representing life. Evergreens are the symbol of immortality. 
Green has also another meaning, being used to designate 
dishonesty and signify any destructive or malicious force. 
Shakespeare, in the Merchant of Venice, speaks of "green- 
eyed jealousy" ; and a common expression is "green with envy," 

In Oriental countries yellow was closely associated with the 
sun and its worshipers. It was the royal color of China. Gold is 
also the symbol of the sun. Yellow is the nearest color to gold ; 
therefore they both have tfie same meaning. 



Fir^t make the sketch of the body of Christ standing m the sunlight ; 
then the shadow the cross. Build a storv around each of the other 



The streets of the New Jerusalem are pure gold, according 
to John's description as they appeared to him while he "was 
in the Spirit" on the Isle of Patmos. He also said, "The city 
was pure gold, like unto glass"; that is to say, like yellow 

The yellow fields of corn and grain represent the wisdom 
of God. The paintings of the old masters gave Jacob a yellow 
robe because of his wisdom in obeying the angels. The 
opposite meaning is often used when describing a dishonest 
person: "He is yellow." Artists have often pictured Judas 
Iscariot as wearing robes of dirty yellow. 

Inasmuch as orange is the color that most nearly represents 
fire, it was extensively used by the fire worshipers. It sig- 
nifies wisdom. The lighted lamp held in the hand is a symbol 
of human knowledge. Fire on the hearth is referred to as a 
symbol of hospitality, and the orange-colored flame is the 
symbol of the Spirit. God manifested himself to Moses in the 
burning bush. He went before the Israelites in a pillar of 
fire by night. He descended on Mount Sinai in fire, and his 
divine presence was likewise made manifest In the Tabernacle 
In the wilderness. The Spirit's commg on the Day of Pente- 
cost was also represented as "cloven tongues like as of fire" 
that "sat upon each of them." 

Yet fire, symbolized by the orange color, though it is a 
good servant, is a bad master and very destructive in its 
uncontrolled state. Orange and black are the colors generally 
attributed to Satan, and orange and black are colors common 
to various venomous reptiles and insects. 

Life in the blood, whose symbol is red, signifies love. Red 
has stood for love in all the countries of the earth. The robes 
worn by high priests at times were red, and the color of a 
cardinal's robe is bright red. Red is more often symbolically 
used m literature than any other color. In the Old Testament 
red is referred to as representing love, and some of the old 
masters in art painted a red robe on Mary Magdalene. The 



<*' S'lGbs.eLres ^taB^___ 

These pictures are called silhouettes. They give the effect of looking 
at objects which are between you and the light. This kind of drawing 
is always effective. 


pictures of the Madonna, almost without exception, are red 
and blue, for love and truth. Red also has an opposite mean- 
ing, representing war and crime. In his vision on the Isle of 
Patmos, John saw the red horse of war followed by the black 
horse of famine. The red dragon, also seen by John, repre- 
sented evil, war, and crime. 

Violet and purple are often used synonymously. Purple is 
a mixture of red and blue. Violet is a bluish purple, and is the 
color of flowers by that name. Since violet is a mixture of 
red and blue, or love and truth, it represents the color of the 
Son and the Father. Old masters gave Jesus a violet robe, to 
suggest his perfect union with God; they also portrayed the 
martyrs as clothed in violet during their martyrdom, but in 
white after being received in heaven. Purple has always been 
the color of garments and robes worn by sovereigns on royal 
occasions. Violet is also the symbol of sorrow, sadness, and 
mourning. Not the mourning of those who have no hope, 
but the mourning of those who "endure as seeing Him who is 
invisible." Violet also represents the day as it draws to an 
end, as the purple shades of evening. 


Keeping junior and intermediate children busy and their 
minds occupied often taxes the ingenuity of the teacher to the 
limit. There is nothing that can yield such results as the crayon 
in this case. The teacher, when he finds that something must 
be done to concentrate the thoughts of the boys and girls, can 
resort to the use of the chalk, a supply of which should always 
be kept ready at hand. 

A number of little "stunts" should be practiced over and 
over beforehand for emergencies. A few suggestive ideas will 
be given here that may help the teacher who can make original 
applications of them. 

With your chalk first make a large capital J at the upper 
left corner of your paper, and ask what boy it was who had 



A few simple illustrations easy to make, but impressive if used 
rightly. Explained in the text. See page 80. 


a coat of many colors, or what boy was sold into Egypt. As 
soon as Joseph's name Is mentioned, make the other letters 
of the name in a line below the first one on the sheet. Now 
ask the class to name some good trait of character Joseph had 
that begins with the letter J. The word "just" could be used. 
Ask what other trait he had which begins with O. "Obedient" 
can be used for the second letter. Then sincere, earnest, 
patient, and honest, thus. 

J ust 
O bedient 
S incere 
E arnest 
P atient 
H onest 

Then turn to one of the class, preferably the one who is least 
attentive, and ask, "Thomas, how would you like to live so 
that your name would stand for some splendid things? Let us 
see what the name Thomas might stand for." 

T ruthful 
H onest 
O rderly 
M anly 
A mbitious 
S teady 

The teacher can comment on what a splendid record that 
would be for anyone and remark that he feels sure that 
Thomas will measure up to every bit of it. Thus a lesson will 
be taught to the pupils. An apt teacher will adapt an unlim- 
ited number of such ideas to fit the occasion. 

Another idea may be adapted to suit almost any Bible story 
or incident Draw a picture of a boat to represent the ark 
and ask the class what person or incident in the Bible it 
suggests. The answer is, "Noah." A basket in some bushes: 
"Moses." Pole with serpent: "Israelites in the wilderness," 


Ladies' hands and men's hands, in almost every shape. Try making 
them just as near like the original as possible. 


Some lamps: "Parable of the Ten Virgins." Broom: "The 
Parable of the Lost Coin." An apple: "The Garden of Eden." 
Dove: "The Flood." Raven: "Elijah." Tables of stone: 
"Moses." Sling: "David." Star: "Bethlehem Babe." Cross: 
"The Crucifixion." 

To conduct this with interest let the class choose sides ; then 
ask each side a question. If answered correctly, it gives the 
side one point to their credit. If one side fails to answer a 
question, let the other side try it. 

There are many ways in which crayon pictures or words 
may be varied for people of different ages, and for different 
occasions. For instance, a sketch of a fish net may be used 
in finding out how many of the pupils know which of Christ's 
disciples were fishermen; or a tent will bring up the subject 
of Paul and his trade. 

Names of Bible characters may be made into an acrostic, as : 

D aniel 

A mos 

N ahum 

I saiah 

E zekiel 

L aban 

Who were they? Tell about them. 
Here is another acrostic: 

C heerful 
H onest 
R epentant 
I ndustrious 
S ubmissive 
T ruthful 
I nnocent 
A fectionate 
N oble 


Note the shaded effect of the fist. The same shading may be added 
to any of the rest with good effect. A simple statement in crude let- 
teruig is strengthened 100 per cent by the addition of a weil-worked- 
out hand in one of the shapes here shown. 


To illustrate a good point about keeping a secret when but 
one knows it, we indicate it thus: (1). But if we tell it to 
another person, that makes two ones (11), or eleven. From 
this may be explained why so many secrets leak out when 
told. But this same rule holds good when we tell the gospel 
truths to someone (1) ; the good news is so good that it soon 
spreads to someone else (11). 

Also, God is something, as (1). We are as nothing (0) 
when compared to him; but if we place God first in our 
lives, if we get on the right side of God (10), he magnifies 
us and we multiply him. If we place ourselves first, let us 
see what the result will be (01). 

When our will and God's will run parallel (=), there Is 
equality and harmony; but when our will runs contrary to 
God's will, then come the crosses (-[-) of life. 

There are several good object lessons that may be learned 
by considering light. The Bible says, "Ye are the light of 
the world." We are as the candle, lamp, or electric globe. 
Not one of these can ignite itself we cannot light ourselves 
spiritually. When the candle is lit, or as soon as the electric 
current begins to flow through the light bulb, it begins to 
shine. Immediately upon being lighted we shine for Christ, 
for he is the power within that causes us to shine. The Bible 
does not say we are to "make our light shine"; but we are 
simply to "let it shine." 

The candle or electric globe shines for others; we are to 
shine that others may be blessed. The lamp is constantly giv- 
ing up its own life in service to others; so we must sacrifice 
self to serve others. One lamp in working order can give 
light to hundreds and lose none of its brightness it shines 
just as brightly in cellar, parlor, pulpit, or out of doors. 

The moon is also spoken of as a source of light, yet It too, 
like the cold incandescent lamp, has no light within itself. It 
merely takes the light that it receives from the great source 
and speeds It on its way, to be a blessing to others. 



No part of the human form is used in illustration more than the 
hand, and on these four pages of hand illustrations you will find hands 
in almost any position. Practice all of them, for they will be valuable. 


A picture of a tree and a post may be made side by side. 
At first the tree is small and slender; but it has life and will 
eventually grow to be useful to man. It gets larger and sturdier 
and of more service. (See page 73.) 

The post, when put into the ground, is large and solid and 
supports a fence. But it is dead, and the forces of nature 
begin their destructive work upon it it begins to decay, and 
in a few years rots off and falls to earth. The difference 
between the two is: one is alive, and the other is dead. 

The varied characteristics of life and its laws may be 
likened to the forces of good and evil exemplified by those 
which make for good or ill in the tree and post. 

See sketch on page 73; then go on with this lesson. 

First draw the quiet, slow-moving, deep river, with the 
sailboat, and tell of the silent but powerful waters that flow 
on through the ages to bless generations of men. Then tell 
about going into the woods and hearing falling waters. Com- 
pare the noisy little stream with the mighty, silent river, and 
compare people with small minds who cause trouble and agita- 
tion in a community with people who are noble, charitable, 
kind, and sensible. 

Here is another little stunt called the "Golden Rule." Ask 
a pupil to assist you. Give him the piece of chalk and ask 
him to draw as straight a line as he can, from left to right 
across the board. 

Now ask, "Is that straight ? J> It will more than likely be 
crooked in places. Now tell him that you will fasten a string 
across the board with a tack at each end, as a guide for his 

Now ask him to draw a perfectly straight line, using the 
string as a guide for his hand. Of course, the string gives, and 
the line is as crooked as ever. 


Action is expressed by the hand to as great an extent as by any other 
part of the body. Here is the shaded fist. Note the high light and 
shadow Try this shading on one of the other hands. 


Now take a yardstick, or straightedge, and draw a perfectly 
straight line. 

The lesson: We all want to live perfectly straight lives; 
we do not want to make crooked work of it. If we depend 
on ourselves, we are likely to have crooked lives. Following 
the string is like trying to follow someone else who is as 
weak and faulty as ourselves. There is a rule that will keep us 
straight we call it the Golden Rule, because it is so good 
and it is as valuable as gold. 

Now ask the pupil to draw lines on both sides of the rule. 
These are parallel lines; we should draw the lines for others 
as we would draw them for ourselves parallel lines. (See 
Matthew 7:12.) Build a very profitable lesson around this by 
getting the class to find the verse in their Bibles. Get them to 
commit the verse to memory. 

In years of Sunday-school work I have found that some 
lessons yield to an illustration well, but others do not. In 
standing before an audience of old and young, I have found 
that as soon as I picked up the piece of chalk interest was 
aroused; and as the different marks and lines were made, 
every pair of eyes followed each move. Regardless of what 
was said, the lesson brought out by the chalk was what im- 
pressed the minds of the audience. I know this to be true, 
for time and again boys and girls have reminded me of some 
diagram or picture I had made years before. I have found, 
therefore, that the result of the chalk is successful and lasting. 

In work among children and young people, in school, Sun- 
day school, young people's meetings, dubs, entertainments, and 
homes, the opportunities of impressing good seed thoughts 
with chalk were never better. A great many illustrations and 
pictures may be applied and adapted to good advantage. 




The bare foot is rarely drawn in public pictures, but it is important. 
If the foot or shoe is improperly drawn, it gives an awkward appeas- 
ance to the whole picture. 


It is not necessary to produce a work of art in order to be 
appreciated, for even the cartoonists and comic strip artists 
of today use illustrations that appeal to the common people 
and are full of human interest. 

The common things of life, which have always interested 
the masses, are what made the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth 
so gripping. He gave word pictures of the commonplace things 
about him and drew from them lessons that the people of his 
day could understand. He talked of the lilies, ravens, sparrows, 
chickens, vineyards, cornfields, and fishermen; of money, 
children, and many other things about which the people had 
definite knowledge. He talked to the common people on 
their own level and in their own realm of understanding. Even 
the children could understand his teachings, as well as 
the older people. The children can understand them now. All 
the use of a piece of chalk. The chalk can be made to impress 
indelibly each incident of a lesson in a way that will help 
these lessons may be impressed on the minds of children by 
build character and a foundation for a useful life. 

Here are a few more acrostics that are interesting: 

Word of God 




Good motto 








The eye is the index to the face, and of all things must be care- 
fully drawn. Still there is nothing difficult about drawing it. You 
should put much practice on eyes. 


Though we should suffer 


Let JESUS shine forth in the midst of trials. 

3|t $ $ 

Matt. 7:7 



$ $ # 










One of the handiest things for any person who wishes to 
do chalk work is a scrap box, scrapbook, or file of some sort. 

For many years I have had such a collection, to which 
many sketches and designs are added from time to time. Many 


The curves of the nose as well as the eye, ear, and mouth must be 
carefully drawn. Try drawing some types of noses you see every day s 
which are oot shown here. 


of the sketches in this book are drawn from this collection. It 
is well to have envelopes of uniform size, either the kind for 
catalogs or legal use (known as No 10) A box large 
enough to permit these envelopes to stand on edge is the 

The envelopes are used to classify the different kinds of 
clippings, such as flowers, birds, buildings, landscapes, and 
people. Whenever an illustration from a magazine or news- 
paper can be clipped, so much the better, but where this is 
impossible, an outline on thin paper may be made of such 
portions of it as promise to be useful. If a sheet of carbon 
paper is available, lay it under the illustration and on a sheet 
of paper to take the transfer, and by a pointed instrument or 
pencil trace the outlines. Where carbon paper is not avail- 
able, cover a space on a sheet of paper with lead pencil mark- 
ings, using a flat portion of lead; this will serve as carbon 
and will transfer quite plainly. A pantagraph is a handy in- 
strument for copying sketches in any proportionate size 

With such a collection of material, any person will soon 
have a wealth of illustrative matter from which chalk pictures 
may be adapted It is well also to make pencil sketches of 
chalk talks used in your own public work and mark on these 
the date and where used. This is valuable for reference. 

Occasionally the representation of an eye, or hand, or some 
other detail of the human figure seems almost a necessity in 
blackboard teaching and sketching. Such details are difficult 
unless you have a good collection of eyes, hands, feet, and 
such like from which you can select a sketch that is suitable. It 
would be well to practice on these, as a hand or eye without 
the proper shape and effect appears awkward. Almost everyone 
knows how they should look to be natural, and if they are 
made incorrectly they will be very noticeable; however, after 
a little practice in producing a good sketch the job is easy. 
The sketches of the hand and other parts of the human figure 
given in this book are very valuable. 



The ear is like the C and S (reversed) and must be drawn carefully. 
There are many shapes of ears, and much practice should be given the 


There are some lessons that will not yield to Illustration very 
well, but with a little thought some suitable sketch, diagram, 
acrostic, or outline will suggest itself to your mind. 

Take, for instance, the story of Christmas a sketch similar 
to the one given in this book may be made before the class 
in such a way that it will impress some truths on the minds 
of the youth in a manner that will never be forgotten. 
Here is a sketch of Bethlehem. (See page 61.) In order to 
make a night scene you should cover with a bluish gray the 
entire portion of the sheet of paper which your picture will 
occupy. Rub the chalk on chamois or cotton and apply the 
color to the paper with a circular motion in such a way that 
the entire surface will be covered with gray. Then with a 
black crayon draw the hill country and the old-fashioned vil- 
lage with flat-roofed houses of stone all the while telling of 
the Eastern custom of caring for flocks of sheep in the 
open country and on the hillsides, and how the shepherds 
were watdiing over their flocks by night when the angel of 
the Lord appeared and brought the glad tidings to the shep- 
herds. Locate a particular spot where the Christ child lay 
and above it make the star and also the rays of light in yel- 
low, and some spots of dim light coming from the windows. 
Make these also in yellow or light orange. 

Such a picture has great possibilities. It impresses on the 
minds of the audience the nature of that hilly country. The 
ancient dwellings and the star of Bethlehem are made more 
vivid than they could possibly be by a fully colored printed 
picture. The mere fact that the audience has seen it produced, to- 
gether with the story, makes it doubly interesting and deeply 
impresses the thought on their minds. A photograph or finely 
printed picture cannot yield so much; it cannot follow the 
unfolding truth, as does the chalk, from the first mark repre- 
senting the hills, then houses, and finally the star. 

The simple story, from the prophecy of the star to the 
light that shines in our hearts, is full of interest, and any 




These are called egg-shaped faces, and the contour is practically 
the same in the various faces. This is good practice work, and you will 
always find good use for knowledge of how to produce the multitude 
of facial expressions. 


teacher should easily see how the chalk can help in teaching 
the simple truths. The high lights, or reflection of the moon 
on the roofs of the buildings, can be made to add interest 
to the scene by touching up with yellow, only it should be 
used sparingly. 

The Bethlehem scene is only one of hundreds of such les- 
sons in the Bible that yield to illustration. There is scarcely 
a Sunday-school lesson, or any subject one desires to dwell 
upon, but that may be adapted to some scene, diagram, or 

Suggestions and outlines of subjects would fill many books ; 
in fact there are several books of this kind on the market, 
if one desires such material, but to have a knowledge such as 
this book imparts is worth far more to you than outlines, 
since you learn to adapt your own ideas and designs to your 


The meaning of the word "perspective" is given as the "art 
or science of representing, on a surface, objects as they ac- 
tually appear to the eye/* 

Sometimes a very few lines or marks, or the position and 
size of certain objects, will give the effect of distance, without 
which the picture would appear flat. 

In order to become a successful chalk talker, blackboard 
illustrator, or even an occasional user of the chalk, we must 
of necessity know a few of the technical terms and under- 
stand them. 

As you stand on the beach looking far out to sea over the 
blue waters, your eyes come to a point where the sky and 
water meet we call this line the horizon. The effect is the 
same when looking out over a plain, desert, or prairie. 



Here is the simplest demonstration of perspective knpwn.^ Read 
explanation in the text and study it out for yourself. This will not 
be difficult, because it is as plain as the nose on a face after you 
see these pictures. 


The horizon line must appear in every out-of-door picture, 
or any picture where the artist wishes to indicate distance. The 
true horizon usually appears at the level of the eye from 
where the person is standing. There is no set rule as to just 
where this line shall appear in the picture ; it is usually either 
a little above or a little below the center. Look carefully over 
the sketches in this chapter. 

All parallel lines that recede from us converge at a point 
somewhere on the horizon, and this is known as the vanish- 
ing point, or point of sight. For instance, standing on a rail- 
road track and looking as far as the eyes can see, the two 
rails approach each other. The effect is noted when standing 
in the middle of a long street. Trees or telephone poles, when 
standing in a long row, seem gradually to diminish in size 
as they go farther away from us. (See the illustrations on this 
point.) The point of sight is usually about five feet above the 
ground, and every level line points toward a spot level with 
your eye. 

Considering all that has been said about perspective, the 
student may at first have become somewhat bewildered, and 
the whole subject may seem complicated. This is the way one 
writer explains perspective: "All level lines leading away 
from the observer vanish at a point on the horizon which is 
level with the eye of the observer.*' This is an almost in- 
fallible rule; if memorized and put to practice it will banish 
all doubts and fears. 

You will notice that lines on the building (page 93) lead 
to the vanishing point, and even the doors, windows, and 
chimney point to the same spot. If you were standing in a 
street looking down the rows of tall buildings, and you 
wanted to make a sketch of the scene, all lines, such as rows 
of windows, doors, and cornice would extend to this same 

There are a number of variations between what is called 
the natural vanishing point and the accidental vanishing point, 


(H) in the sketches above signifies Horizon. (V) means Vanishing 
Point referred to in this chapter. In Sketch No. 1 the balls touch the 
horizon line, as do the tepees in No. 2. This arrangement alone gives 
perspective to the sketches. 


but these cannot be explained here. The simplest perspective 
illustration is the drawing of the boxes in this chapter. Study 
this sketch thoroughly, and you will find the rules of per- 
spective really easy. 

Perspective in landscape is largely brought about by com- 
parative objects and the size in which they are indicated. Often 
a sailboat in the distance, even though it be but a mere mark, 
puts the finishing touch to the picture, and it appears that you 
are looking miles away into the distance. 

There are two distance points one at the right side, and 
the other at the left of the vanishing point, or point of sight. 
All lines which do not converge at the point of sight do so 
at the distance points, or at the vanishing points fixed by the 
position of the object. 

The place where we stand is called the station point, and is 
not within the picture, but at such a point where the picture 
can be viewed to good advantage. It is similar to the distance 
points, in that they are entirely out of the picture, yet control 
the perspective. 

The lower edge of the picture, or more positive position, or 
surface on which the objects stand, is called the ground line. 
It is represented by a straight line parallel with the horizon. 

There are also other terms, such as the perspective plane, 
which is the distance between the horizon and ground line; 
the central visual ray, which is the line from the station point 
to the point of sight, and other technical terms, a knowledge 
of which is absolutely necessary in the study of professional 
art. Any person wishing to learn more of this interesting sub- 
ject will find instructive material in the libraries. 

It is the object of this book to give only the limited amount 
of such information necessary to enable the chalk talker to 
make drawings above the novice class. By carefully examin- 
ing the illustrations in this chapter this whole subject will be 
easily understood. 



The comparative size of objects and the few simply placed lines 
are what gives proper perspective to this picture. 



It is surprising to see how few people there are, even 
among those who are well educated and well read, who know 
how to print letters properly. This is attributed to a lack of 
attention. Any person who desires to print some words on 
the board occasionally with a picture or diagram should know 
how to make letters correctly. This is especially the case if 
the drawing is being done before a class of sharp-eyed pupils. 

Most of us pay very little attention to the individual letters 
when we read ; for many it would be a real task to make the 
whole alphabet in capitals and small letters correctly. 

Many times one sees along the roadways or in villages 
small signs made by amateurs, in which the letter S is made 
backwards, or some other letter or figure is made incorrectly. 
Even in such a case many people are conscious that something 
is wrong, although they cannot say just what it is. 

The Roman letters, the type of letters used in our 
ordinary reading, have what are called a shaded line and a 
light line. At first sight it may seem that the shading is 
irregular, or without a purpose. But we should bear in mind 
that in olden times reed pens were used in making letters, 
because before movable type and the printing press were in- 
vented all printing was done by hand. The vocation of a scribe 
was considered a profession, and the workman who was good 
at hand lettering was m demand. As the reed, or flat-pointed 
pen made of bamboo-like grass, was drawn downward, the 
stroke was heavy; and when moved upward, it was light, 
similar to the effect obtained with the use of a pen. The 
Roman style of letter was fashioned by custom, and for cen- 
turies it has been made in the same way. 

Take for instance such capitals as A, K, M, N, U, V, W, 
X, and Y: you can see that capital A, for instance, begins with 
an upward stroke (light), followed by a downward stroke 
(heavy) thus accounting for the light and shaded lines in 



The fewer lines to get the expression the better in chalk talking. 
Make your marks as nearly as possible like the original. A little 
further along you will learn more about facial proportions. 


the same letter. Capitals M, N, U, V, and W follow this 
same principle. They seem to have been started at the open 

The black Gothic style of letter is what printers term 
"bold face/' It has heavy strokes throughout, and the strokes 
are uniform in thickness. 

In outlining your drawing for a printed line, always make 
light pencil lines for guide lines so that all letters will be of 
uniform height. Crude letters made uniform in height will 
pass much easier than perfect letters with no uniformity in 

Styles of type change with the times; new styles are always 
being made. Irregular or freakish letters should be avoided; 
plain letters that anyone can read are the best to use in 
demonstrative work. An ornamental initial, a colored line 
underneath a word, or different colors of crayons are often 
employed for emphasis. 

It is well to spend considerable time practicing the 
proper shapes of letters, until a fairly accurate knowledge is 
obtained of any particular style of lettering. 

Words in which small letters are used are more easily 
read than words composed entirely of capital letters, and with 
a little practice they can be made quite easily. 

By a little study of advertisements one can see how the 
different styles of type are employed. Some are wide, and are 
called " extended." Others are narrow, and are called "con- 
densed"; the latter are used when a considerable amount of 
wording must be placed in a given line. The heavy-stroked 
letters are more generally used for emphasis. 

An ordinary amount of white space should be around any 
line of lettering, as crowding destroys the effectiveness of 
the wording, regardless of where it is. 

In making capital letters all the letters are of about the 
same width, except M, and W, which are wider, and I and J, 



Too many lines will ruin a chalk-talk picture. The right line in the 
right place is all important. Practice Uncle Sam until you can make 
him well. You will find his picture always a popular number in 
general programs. 


which are narrower. The horizontal line in B, E, F, H, P, 
and R should be a little above center, so as to keep the letters 
from appearing top-heavy. Letters ordinarily should be 
about the same distance apart; but when such letters as A, V, 
L, and Y appear in a word such as "VAINLY," in order to 
give an appearance of uniformity, less space should be be- 
tween the V and A, and L and Y. Where two letters with 
full stroke sides, as HI or MN appear side by side, a little 
more space should be allowed than with such letters as CG, 
O and S. Capital O, Q G, and Q should be made a lit- 
tle taller than the straight letters (the extension to be both on 
top and bottom) , as they will appear to the eye to be shorter 
when made the exact height of other letters. The space be- 
tween words should be about the same as the width of an 
ordinary letter. Try to keep the perpendicular lines the same 
angle, as nothing is so noticeable as some letters leaning one 
way and others leaning another. 

With a little care the average person will make very 
good success with lettering. 

A few alphabets are here given, so that you can get a 
general idea of the shape and contour of the letters. It is well 
to note carefully the heavy and light strokes of the different 
letters on page 103. 


t u v w x y z 

Bold Face type. 



Roman type. 


Gothic type, 



There are quite a number of symbols used in architectural 
design, especially in church and cathedral architecture, that 
have a definite meaning. A knowledge of these is a great 
help in crayon drawing. 

The next time you visit a fine church building take note 
of the symbols described in this chapter and see how many 
of them are used. You will find more used in the designs 
of the large art-glass windows and gables than in any other 
part of the building. 

The symbol of the cross in its multiplicity of variations has 
been used in geometrical and architectural design throughout 
the ages, even before the Christian Era. In the later centuries 
there was an opportunity of elaborating on the variations In 
designing coats of arms, ornamental title pages of books, and 
initial letters, before the art of printing came into general use. 
In the present century designers of cloth prints, wallpaper, 
stencil borders, linoleum, oilcloth, and so on, have employed 
unending variations of the standard designs of the 
cross, circle, square, triangle, and rectangle. The numerals 
used in this chapter refer to corresponding numbered illus- 
trations, which should be referred to at the time of reading the 
text, in order that you may firmly establish in your mind the 
identity of each symbol. (These begin on page 107.) 

The Greek cross (1), with four equal arms, is supposed to 
have originated in Eden, where four rivers flowed in different 
directions, watering the whole earth. It was a symbol of 
religion long before the Christian Era. 

The circle (2) is a symbol of eternity, as it has no begin- 
ning or end; and the cross within the circle (3 and 4) sig- 
nifies Christianity bounded or surrounded by eternity a very 
beautiful symbol both in meaning and design. Every one 
of the symbols has its meaning, and the various combinations 
are marvelous in their construction and interpretation. 



There is no end of the variety of feminine faces. The many ways 
of hair dressing make a world of difference in even the same model. 
A good practice is to sketch from living models. Try it. You'll find 
it interesting. 


The Latin cross (5) has a short upper arm and a longer 
lower arm. This Is the type of cross upon which Christ was 
crucified. Ever since his time the Latin cross has symbolized 
Christianity, although it was not universally used as such until 
the reign of Constantine, in the fourth century. Constantine, 
a pagan, had very little use for Christianity, and added much 
to the persecutions of the early Christians, until he had an ex- 
perience that influenced not only his life but that of his mother, 
and they both embraced Christianity. Then he made it the 
universal religion of the Roman Empire. In the sky he saw a 
large, flaming cross, with an inscription in Greek, that was for 
him what the handwriting on the wall was for Belshazzar. 
Since Constantme's time the cross has been a universal symbol 
of Christianity. 

In design, sometimes the arms of the cross are pointed, 
indicating thorns (6) . This signifies suffering and sorrow. 

The white lily always represents purity, and the fleur-de-lis 
(7) design in its various forms represents the lily. The lily- 
blossom design (8) on the arms of the cross is a symbol of 

Jewels were used on the arms of the cross (9) to denote 
value, or priceless treasure. 

A budded cross (10) represents life. The form has some- 
times been made to resemble a blossom, as well as the bud. 

The trefoil (see number 29 and 30 both in text and illus- 
tration), meaning the Trinity, or the Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit, combines the symbol of Christianity with the Deity. 

Explanation of sketch on opposite page. 
symbols in this chapter is material for several programs. 

1. Greek cross 9 Christianity value 

2. Eternity 10 Christianity life 

3 and 4. Christianity eternal 11. Christianity trinity 

5. Latin cross 12. Saint Andrew's cross 

6. Christianity suffering 13. Tau cross Egyptian 

7. Fleur-de-lis lilies 14 and 15. Maltese crosses 

8. Christianity purity 16. Christianity light 





7~Q~ 8 
de-lis V\P 


t Andrews 

T^a^Ci^ss Ma/tse Craves 

See explanation at bottom of page 106. 


The Saint Andrew's cross (12) is like the letter X, signify- 
ing the form of death suffered by that Apostle. 

The Tau cross (13), so named from its resemblance to the 
Greek letter T, was more commonly Egyptian. It was used as 
a religious emblem in India and China before the Christian 

The Maltese cross (14) was used in various forms; but 
authorities tell us that the true Maltese cross is a white cross 
with eight points, on a black background. It is an emblem of 
chivalry and knighthood of the Knights of Malta. The com- 
monly used character termed the Maltese cross (15) is also 
an emblem of knighthood. 

A cross with the points burning with flame (16) is a 
symbol of light, or rather, that one of the attributes of Chris- 
tianity is light. 

Upon a shield (17), which symbolizes faith, the cross rep- 
resents the connecting link between God and man. 

Planted upon a threefold base (18), it is called the Cross 
of Calvary. The base signifies faith, hope, and love. Faith 
holds the cross (Christianity) , hope underlies faith, and love 
is the foundation of all. 

The cross is sometimes placed on a globe (19) to indicate 
dominion ; it also signifies that Christianity is above the world. 

Besides the variations mentioned, there has been an endless 
variety of combinations used in designs, such as numbers 
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26, explanations of which are 
given below. 

Explanation of sketch on opposite page. 

More symbols Good for Church, Sunday School or Young People's 
Meetings. * 

17. Christianity faith 23. Christianity crosslet 

18. Cross of Calvary 24. Jerusalem cross 

19. Christianity dominion 25 - S^ ble ^ cr ? s ' Washburne 

20. Patriarchal cross Worcestershire > 

' n, ~ 26 ' ^ the Nave of Castl * A 

22. Christianity Gospels Church, Norfolk. England 



See explanation at bottom of page 108. 


With the symbols here represented all the attributes of 
Christianity in all its phases are exemplified; therefore, these 
significations and meanings lend beauty, knowledge, and 
character to architectural design. By referring to the illus- 
trations on page 111 a number of added variations will be 

An entire chalk-talk program for many occasions may be 
worked out on "The Significance of the Cross," by simply 
using the suggestions and illustrations in this chapter and 
enlarging on the various phases. Additional material for the 
talk may be secured from reference books in any library. 

A few songs appropriate for the occasion may be sung, such 
as "Down at the Cross/' '"The Old Rugged Cross," and many 
others on the subject of the cross. 

Aside from the cross there are many other symbols, some 
of which are here given. 

Since eternity is symbolized by a perfect circle, the four 
Gospels and their writers Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John 
are symbolized by four interlaced circles (27). A later form 
of these four circles has them merged into one figure (28), 
called the quatrefoil. 

Three interlaced circles (29) represent the eternal char- 
acter of the Trinity Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. This de- 
sign was afterward changed into the trefoil (30). The tri- 
angle (31) is also a symbol of the same the Trinity also 

Explanation of sketch on opposite page. 

27 and 28. The four Gospels 40. Victory 

29 and 30. The Trinity 41 and 42. Peace 

31. The Trinity 42^. Hope 

32. Victory 43. Heavenly wisdom 

33. Guidance 44. Sin 

34. Message 45. Purity 

35. Hate 46. Reward 

36. Just punishment 47. Holy Spirit 

37. Judgment 48. Church 

38. Intellectual light 49. Law 

39. Suffering 50. Blessing 



See explanation at bottom of page 110. 



denoting threefold unity. The triangle in modern times sig- 
nifies soul, rnind, and body. 

Other symbols are the flag (32), for victory; the shepherd's 
crook (33), for guidance; arrow (34), for a message; a spear 
(35), for hate, anger, and malice; the sword (36), for just 
punishment; the scales (37), for judgment; the lamp (38), 
for intellectual light; the cup (39), for suffering; the crown 
(40), for victory; the olive branch (41), for peace; palms 
(42), also for peace; anchor (421^), for hope; the star (43), 
for heavenly wisdom; the black heart (44), for sin, and the 
white heart (45), for purity; a cluster of grapes (46), for 
reward; the dove (47) , for the Holy Spirit; and the ship (48) , 
for the church. In this case the water represents the world. 
Law is symbolized by the tables of stone (49) ; and blessing 
by the rays of light (50) coming through the clouds. 

These symbols are but a few of those adopted and used 
throughout the centuries. Other symbols will present them- 
selves to the studious worker who desires to get truths to the 
minds of all ages, as well as to make the chalk talk interesting 
and instructive. 



Here we are with faces showing the different moods. Note caiefuliy 
the markings around the eyes, nose, and mouth. Corners ot mouth 
always turn UB when smiling and down when angry or disgusted. 
Much practice should be put on faces in the different moods. 



- OP- - 

E Y 8RO vv"^. . , 

"IviZJNE^is cme HAt-ff 

TOP OF WP/\P> vo rwifNf 1 

____^ ON^EJI^LF^ 

"THE^ DiST^fnce. FROM 
ne BROW ro c^tM, 




Study the proportions of the head pictured above, and the one on 
the opposite page. Read carefully, and draw often enough to get the 
proper proportions in your mind. 


Learning to draw the human form, or any part of it, is a 
necessity for the chalk talker. The reader will easily tell that 
this book is not intended to be a complete treatise on art, and 
especially on the drawing of the human figure; but the sug- 
gestions given In the different sketches will be of great value 
to the interested chalk-talk enthusiast. The simplest forms 
in representing action are the jets on page 39. The O-shaped 



C__~^ 51DE VIEW 

In drawing sketch or cartoon heads, it is not necessary to adhere 
so strictly to these proportions, but a carefully drawn head always is 
a mark of knowledge and talent. This chapter should be read carefully. 

circle for the head, connected to the legs, can be made to express 
a surprising multiplicity of bodily actions. 

Figures representing the human form are made by cartoon- 
ists, artists, and chalk talkers in all sorts of shapes; but in 
cartoon drawing, the body from the top of the head to the 
bottom of the feet should not be less than five heads. The 
correct human figure, however, is from six and one-half to 
eight heads in height. 

The drawing at top of this page shows a normal head. You 
will see the correct proportions of the face eyes, nose, ears, 


mouth, etc. and the normal view of the body gives a good 
idea of the correct location of the various portions of the 
body. Many of the sketches in this book will present to you 
the lines necessary to express the different emotions. 

It is very necessary for the chalk-talk student to be able to 
portray quite correctly the different types of individuals by 
the shapes of the head, as shown on page 117. 

It is said that the shape of every normal head designates 
the type of character of the individual and classifies him as 
one of the six distinct types shown on this plate. You will 
find a head shaped like an inverted pear large at the top 
and tapering gradually to the chin. This type yields more to 
the comic figure than any of the other types shown. 

The opposite type narrow at the top of the head and wide 
toward die chin, usually denotes good nature. 

The round face is the jolly fat man, who is seldom out of 
sorts with the world. This face will yield more to the ex- 
pressions of laughter than any other type. 

The long, slim face is the one usually selected to denote 
the serious-minded philosopher, teacher, preacher type, 
although it may be used to typify the sort of person who is 
usually out of sorts with the world. 

The square head generally denotes a practical or typical 
businessman. In cartoons it indicates a man of affairs. The 
oval type, balanced, common-sensed, having a normal degree 
of humor, represents idealism and executive ability. 

In profile views we again find different types clearly dis- 
tinguishable by the distinct shapes and contours of the faces. 
(See same page.) 

The first type is not stupid by any means, yet is always 
getting himself into trouble by his habit of acting first and 
thinking afterward. The concave profile is the opposite to 
this, indicating habits of thought and concentration. The chin 



Sketch, after Manuel Bosenburg. 

It is said that 90 per cent of the normal heads come under one 
of the types shown here. It is well to make a careful study of these 
and read carefully the chapter, "Drawing the Human Form." 


shows determination and stick-to-itiveness. He usually carries 
through whatever he sets his head on. 

The straight type is the good businessman and executive, 
cairn in temperament, with a mind capable of weighing facts. 
Firmness and power are indicated in the square chin. 

The convex-concave type often includes clergymen, actors, 
writers, and artists. The strong nose and chin indicate ideal- 
istic temperament and a man given to thought and intro- 

The concave-convex type denotes strong thinking power, 
but weakness in making decisions and carrying projects 
through to their conclusion. This is the type of person who 
is always getting into hot water, from which he lacks the 
resolution to extricate himself. 

It is well to note carefully the simplicity of the lines in the 
face denoting emotion. The turning up of the corners of the 
mouth is a big start toward a smile, while being "down in the 
mouth" brings the opposite effect. In fact, expressions are 
but a trick of line arrangement, as you will notice in the dif- 
ferent sketches in this book. 


In making an ideal human figure there are certain propor- 
tions that should be followed in order to have the picture seem 
natural. The following is the front view of the ideal man's 

Top of head to chin, one head. 

Chin to breastbone, one head. 

Breastbone to navel, one head. 

Navel to center, one head. 

Center to just above kneecap, one head. 

Just above top of kneecap to beginning of calf, one head. 


The simplest shape of the front view of the face is the egg. Ears 
may be omitted without destroying good effect. The hair standing up 
adds to the expression of fright. 


From thence to base of calf, one head. 
From base of calf to sole of foot, one head. 
Total, eight heads. 

The foot is one-sixth the length of the figure. 
The hand is three-fourths the length of the head. 
The ankle is one-fourth of a head across. 
The calf is a little more than half a head across. 
The knee at both top and bottom is half a head wide. 
The thigh at the widest point is three-fourths of a head in 

The waist is one and one-fourth heads wide. 
The shoulders are two heads wide. 
The neck is half a head high. 

The comparative divisions in the height of an ideal woman's 
figure are substantially the same as those of an iaeal man, but 
the widths are considerably different. 

The foot, ankle, calf, knee, and thighs are nearly the same 
as those of the man. 
The hip is two heads across. 
The waist is one and one-eighth heads wide. 
The shoulders are one and one-half heads across. 
The neck is half a head wide. 

The front head is egg-shaped, the smaller end being at 
the base. Please note carefully the proportions of the head 
on page 114. The eye is divided into three equal parts, of 
which the pupil is the central one. The eyes are the width of 
one eye apart; the ear is as long as the nose; and the mouth 
is a little wider than the eye. 

The center of a baby's figure is at the navel. A child of 
about three years is usually five heads high; the upper part 
of its figure is three heads, the lower part two. A child of 
six years is six heads high. 


The three upper iigures are but simple manipulation of names and 
faces. Note the effect of the perpendicular line in the moon face on 
the right. It is the same face as the next one to it. The figures on 
the lower left are what are termed the Right and Wrong Angles. 



Scientists claim that nothing which completely occupies the 
mind for any length of time is ever forgotten. 

You can remember incidents and pictures seen in childhood, 
or something illustrated in connection with what has occupied 
your attention for some time, and these scenes are never for- 

Through the eye, our mind is said to receive impressions 
that are more lasting than those received through any of our 
other senses. 

Pictures may be ever so beautiful, and yet not give a lasting 
impression; but an appeal to both the eye and the ear marks 
the highest development in the methods of teaching truth. 

The chalk-talk method of teaching is lasting and impressive. 
A speaker or teacher may stand before his class or audience 
and use the most eloquent words, and still his hearers may not 
be interested. He may resort to a graphic word picture, and 
he will detect an increased amount of attention; but let him 
pick up a piece of chalk, and everybody is interested, for the 
audience expects him to do something. When curiosity is 
added to interest, the minds of those in the audience become 
active and ready for the impression that the speaker has within 
his power to make on them. 

Every line made by the chalk, therefore, is full of interest; 
and every chalk talker knows the value of just such a situation 
and makes use of it. That is just the reason that at this point 
so many chalk talkers make what are called surprise pictures. 
If the audience is disappointed in its expectation, the speaker 
has lost a point; but if the chalk is used to portray and fulfill 
the meaning of the word picture, both the message and illus- 
tration have made the point, and a lasting impression has 
been made. 



Children depict their emotions and characteristics in the open- 
window manner. Here are several good children's poses. Sketch them 
and then try to sketch some living models. 


People may seem to forget everything else while watching 
a speaker draw a picture; but they will never completely for- 
get the point if well made. The young, as well as the old, can 
read pictures ; in fact, pictures are a universal language. They 
are like the smile which can be understood by human minds 
of different nationalities. The modern moving picture has 
demonstrated this fact in getting information and facts to 
immigrant population when attempts through unknown lan- 
guages were futile. 

Any person telling a story or describing a scene is in reality 
drawing a word picture for his hearers ; and the more realistic 
the description, the more perfectly the picture is impressed on 
the mind, especially when a chalk picture is included. Well 
do I remember certain teachers, both in public school and 
Sunday school, who knew the art of picturing scenes and 
incidents so vividly that the deep impressions they made in my 
childish mind are just as fresh as if they were received but 

Teaching by such methods is an art almost as old as the 
history of man. It was the one great method used by Christ, 
who was acknowledged by the learned people of his day to be 
the Great Teadier, Men of his own time were compelled to 
admit the power of his teaching; even the chief priests ad- 
mitted that "never man spake like this man." 

Christ's parables were word pictures of the most vivid clear- 
ness. The stories of the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son 
are known to almost every intelligent person. They are pic- 
tured in the mind's gallery in as realistic fashion as if photo- 
graphed or painted there. 

Christ's parables of the Lost Lamb, the Lost Coin, the 
Sower, the Fig Tree, and the Vineyard are illustrations that are 
vivid and realistic. When he gave the word picture of the 
shepherd leaving the ninety-nine sheep, which were safe in the 
fold, and going out into the night to find the one that had 



*^^ : ^;V **-'' -" 

Either one of these will make a good number on your chalk- talk 
program. The beauty of a snow picture is that the prominent part 
of the picture is the paper. If you use this as a number on youi 
program, save it for near the close. 


strayed away and was lost, he demonstrated a panorama of 
vivid realism. Shepherding was a common occupation in 
those days, and nearly everyone knew of it. Many people 
nowadays would not understand a story of the same kind so 
well; but if the speaker were to use the chalk and draw a 
sketch of the sheepfold, of the shepherd going to hunt the 
lost sheep, and the finding of the lamb, the lesson would be 
just as real. 

Christ's life as a teacher, and his methods, are well worthy 
of emulation. He must have been an interesting talker, in 
his original and winning way. He used words and illustrations 
that the people could understand in order to get the message 
to them, as, for instance, asking the woman of Samaria for 
a drink of water and then telling her about the living water. 

It was while Peter and James were fishing that Jesus called 
them to be fishers of men; and after the five thousand had 
been fed, Jesus declared himself to be the bread of life. Also, 
when the people were all thinking of the Passover and the 
slain lamb, Christ told his disciples that his own body would 
be broken and his blood spilled for the sins of the world 

The great reason for Christ's words making such a lasting 
impression upon both old and young was his tactful method, 
as well as the accompanying spirit of simplicity. 

It behooves all who wish to impress truth on their hearers 
to strive to apply the same tactics and methods as those of the 
Great Teacher; and by the wise use of the crayon, they can 
make lasting impressions on the hearers. 

Any blackboard or crayon picture that you are able to make, 
if it does not have a lesson in it if it does not impress some 
truth or cause someone to think differently or more nobly 
misses the mark, and misses it badly. But when the chalk 
accompanies and impresses your point it acts as a climax and 
rivets the lesson on the minds of the hearers. 



TURNOVER STUNTS 1. Sunshine. 2. Shadow. 3. Light and 
dark of the moon. 4. The two-faced man. 5. Mandy and Rastus, 
6. Two of a kind. 





There are a number of "Good Night" stunts, of which only two 
are here given. You can easily adapt your own from almost any 


C Z 
CO < 

5 m